Written by : Lee, Chang Hoo
The basic condition of a good theory is
usually that it be able to explain various kind of phenomena
with only a few principles.
My political theory explains phenomena
based on three principles, and this resulted not only
from the fact that Newton physics is the ideal, but also
from the other reason that will be explained later. And
those three principles are based no another more fundamental
principle. This shows 3·1 structure : this means that
my theory explain phenomena with three materials(재才)
Now I'd like to introduce briefly the result of my trial.
The basic and essential principle required to explain the political phenomena and also to explain the general phenomena including it is "the principle of pursuing existence". This principle means that "everyone gets into actions in order to survive and exist, of which the extension composes and makes the structure of the general social phenomena." This principle lies in man himself and make him possible to exist. By the way, the world itself is disinterested at all in man relatively who is always trying to exist on the other hand. That is, the world is always natural, i.e. "just as it were". The world is full of the strict and cool causality of nature itself. I call this "the principle of being", for, as far as I think, the figure of nature can be described all as "what is is and what is not is not". This is equivalent to the "principle of power" which means that the strong win the weak.
Since the general social phenomena result from the interactions between the man and the world, those three principles which govern and determine general political social phenomena emerge from them. The first among them is the "principle of three dangers". This implies that in order to exist man eliminate all of dangers from the three directions : from the outside, from the inside and from man himself. The second is the "principle of organization". This principle implies the following : the power and strength of man or of a group always determines who can exist, when each of them is trying to expand his existence and interests within interactions among them, thus people naturally come to make groups and to make their social power greater through them for their common existence. The third is the "principle of change and stability". This implies that everything changes eternally and as a whole while man alone tries to create what is required for his living, i.e. stability. This third principle says that the nature and society changes from a state to another state continuously while man also goes on creating stability for his existence in that circumstance, which all advances from one political crises to another eternally that people can not but face. After all, these crises results from the conflicts between fundamental changes and a passing stability. On the other hand, the creations of groups and a particular orders of man for man's existence create the political phenomena. In this way, those three principles are interrelated with one another.
Let me explain those arguments like above more precisely.
At first we can deduce from the 'principle of three dangers" the most important three factors which determine politic-social phenomena. There have been quite much debates on what are the important factors among various ones that help us understand social phenomena so far. Marx argued that only economical factor is most important and another ones are based on it. Another scholars suggested that more factors containing economical one, but each argument was different from another with no standard to determine which argument is more acceptable. My principle of three dangers suggests an answer that political or physical(Pungbaek) factor, economical(Woosa) factor, and idealogical(Unsa) factor are important and basic. However, what is more significant and valuable is that my theory also suggests a kind of matetheory which explains why these three factors must important and basic in understanding social phenomena.
You shall see that Pungbaek, Woosa and Unsa factors interact one another and how they produce whole political social phenomena in next chater. But I'd like to emphasize in advance that it is not all that these factors interact one another. You will also see and understand how these three factors interact, how different each effect is from another and how we can confirm or verify effects of the three factors with historical cases as examples. We can predict political changes in the macro political perspective and even manipulate the political phenomena with this theory. In the micro political perspective we can understand how the individual political subject's activity is limited on one hand, and how micro phenomena are interrelated to macro ones on the other hand. All of these would make us easy to make political decisions.
By the way, these three factors of Pungbaek, Woosa and Unsa are not only elements that determine the whole social phenomena, but also kinds of various interactions that constitute the each part of social phenomena ; categories. Thus, pungbaek, woosa, unsa factors can be understood as three main forms of social force or social power. Human activities in political social phenomena assume these three kinds of form, pungbaek, woosa, and unsa and the man, who is the subject in the phenomenon, make use of military or physical power, commodities or money and the symbols or knowledge. In addition to that, supposing the whole social phenomena can be regarded as the network of interactions constituted of various intentional force, all of them are same in that they are the forces influencing on political body, therefore the whole phenomenon can be analyzed quantitively.
Secondly, the principle of organization makes it possible for us to understand the establishment of each political unites, differences of political behaviors inside/outside of it and their interrelations. The first principle of them dangers make us understand the resource and categories while the second interrelations of macro/micro areas of whole political phenomena. That is to say, the first shows essential and logical structure of political phenomena which the second spatial structure. What the third principle shows is the temporal structure of political phenomenon. Thus we can understand the establishment of a country and its behaviors with the second principle, i.e. that of organization. Understanding country, which is the most important political body in modern world, we now come to understand why international political phenomena are different from domestic political and how these phenomena are interrelated. On the other hand, the principle of organization is also important to understand the political power with. We can understand why political power is required and made, how it behaves in particular conditions and what it finally produces considering those three main factors focused the principle of organization. Furthermore, construction of political machinery and actual relations among them are to be explained according to this principle of organizations.
Thirdly, the principle of change will
explain political social changes. Explaining this third
principle I'd like to suggest to switchover our understanding
in politics like Copernicus. The stable political process
has been understand as different from the dynamic political
change and each of them has been studied in separate ways
so far. Of course, this tendency is due to the fact that
every scholars have been proceeding each by each and failed
in uniting all of them into one, however, as far as I
think, there is also another significant reason behind
it that all have thought the stable political process
is more fundamental than changes. I'd like to convert
this understanding. Although anothers have tried to understand
political changes supposing that stable process be essential
and more fundamental, K now try to understand how the
stable process is possible
According to my opinion, we can explain how the stable political process is possible pointing to it that man flattens some spots in slopes of mountains and hills in order to get ground, gardens and places on which to build their houses. The slopes are to the political changes what the flattened spots are to the stable process. It is not less reasonable to regard the political change as undamental basic frame of political phenomena although we may find stable process more often than changes than to regard the earth full of slopes rather than of plains although there are so many plains in the world. In addition to that this principle of change is most helpful not only in understandings of macro perspective political changes but also of various aspects of micro perspective political phenomena. All of the significant and trivial changes in various aspects of micro phenomenon cannot be explained without this third principle.
After I explain precisely these three principles each by each in next chapters, I will also provide many analysis of various actual political phenomena explaining much more precise relations among these principles. By the way you must keep in mind that those three principles come from one fundamental one ; the principle of pursuing existence that everyone gets into actions in order to survive and exist in disinterested nature, shortly to say, that everyone intends to exist in nature. This can be considered as a meta-principle of those three. Thus this make it possible to unite or separate, and control or limit the three principles. This is why the whole theory of this book has 3·1 structure. You shall see and confirm understand these relations and structure in many analysis of phenomena.
Therefore, what I pursue in the political theory at last is the universal theory that can be applied in every temporal period and every cultural situation. Quite many people may demand such a theory as, however, is difficult to get. I now think that such an object is not so hard to get. However, I'd better confess in advance that my theory may not be complete and sophisticated enough. But I wish the essential point of my thought must have very significant and revolutionary implications.
What I'm trying to suggest in this book is a system of general principle on social political phenomena. Thus, I will not argue for what everyone in our political community should pursue. Neither will I suggest a sort of political ideology like liberalism or communism. I will just explain how factors of those isms works in phenomenon and what they cause and change instead. Such self-limitation, I hope, will not diminish the value of my theory in politics.
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